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Pedal Power solutions to petroleum dependence and polluting vehicles: Arcata Library Bikes, Pedal Power Produce, and more!

CAOE - Committee Against Oil Exploration - stop offshore oil drilling to protect sensitive habitats and cut petroleum dependence.

Culture Change through music! The Depavers eco-rock!

Take our Pledge for Climate Protection and learn about the Global Warming Crisis Council.

SEI hometown action!
Arcata city council's proclamation against war on Iraq and Kyoto Protocol proclamation.

Overpopulation has become a reality.  Overpopulation Resources and News Tidbits

Sail Transport Network

Fact Sheets
Press Releases

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Alternative energy index

Fireplaces and Woodburning Stoves

glass or metal doors or heat shields
new fireplace designs
fireplace inserts
wood stoves
how to buy the right wood stove
buying and using firewood
you can also purchase firewood
seasoned wood
the best woods for burning

While fireplaces may be wonderful for setting a romantic mood, they are relatively inefficient devices for heating the home. On the average, an operating open-masonry fireplace can have efficiencies ranging up to 15 percent, depending upon its type and operation. However, the efficiency story gets worse -- if there is no fire and the damper is left open, a fireplace can actually have a "negative efficiency" as warm air from the house escapes through the chimney!

Fortunately, there are ways to improve fireplace efficiency:

When a fireplace is not is use, the damper should be in the closed position. Since hot air rises, it naturally wants to escape through the chimney. Closing the damper seals off this avenue of escape.

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Glass or Metal Doors or Heat Shields
Placed in front of the fireplace, these sorts of devices will limit the amount of warm room air that escapes the house when the fireplace is not is use.

Doors work particularly well when a fire is burning down for the night, but the damper has to remain open to allow the smoke to vent.

While the fireplace is in operation, glass doors should remain open, since most of the warmth produced by a fireplace is in the form of radiant heat. If closed, the glass will deflect radiant heat back into the fireplace and reduce the heat output to the room. In California, masonry or factory-built fireplaces require closeable metal or glass doors covering the entire opening of the firebox.

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New Fireplace Designs
Circulating fireplaces have heat circulation ducts built into the masonry fireplace. These pull air from the room, circulate it around a metal firebox and send it back, warmed, into the room.

Some of these units have built-in fans to increase the flow of air and heat. Made of metal, circulating fireplaces warm quickly and cool rapidly once the fire is extinguished.

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Fireplace Inserts
An insert is basically a metal wood stove that slides neatly into the fireplace cavity. They are relatively easy to install, and can improve a fireplace's efficiency. Before adding one, however, make sure to have your fireplace and chimney inspected and cleaned.

As a matter of fact, that's a valuable tip in any case -- for the most energy efficiency from your fireplace and to insure your family's safety, have your fireplace and chimney cleaned and inspected at least once a year.

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Wood stoves
You can also increase your fireplace's efficiency -- if not its beauty -- by installing a wood stove in front of it. The existing fireplace chimney becomes the exhaust for the stove. Inspect, clean and repair your chimney first, and check with your local building department or air pollution control district to see if either a wood stove or insert is allowed.

Wood stoves can be added without a fireplace, of course. There are many types of wood stoves on the market today; if you're to buy one, choosing from the many styles, models and options can be a difficult task. Remember that stoves can be expensive to buy initially and costly to operate if you're going to buy wood. They can also be dangerous -- make sure you educate the occupants of your home about the potential safety hazards.

Before you buy, make sure a wood stove meets local air quality regulations. As a rule of thumb, the more efficient the stove, the less pollution it produces. Check with your local air pollution control district to see if there are regulations covering how efficient your stove must be.

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the use of wood for residential heating contributes up to 50 percent of the polynuclear organic air pollutants, some of which may be carcinogenic. During winter months, in areas where wood is the principal heating fuel, Wood stoves produce as much as 80 percent of these type pollutants.

Robert McCrillis of the EPA says, "...In the field, it's the installation and how the stove is operated that has the largest effect on how it performs. Public education on the correct use of a word-burning stove is part of the current regulations."

To meet federal clean air standards, some areas are regulating the use of wood stoves and banning fireplaces in new construction. In order to curb pollution, some communities allow only installation of EPA-approved Phase II stoves, which combust the wood more completely and are more efficient.

Once you've bought and installed a wood stove, notify your local building department to conduct a final inspection to ensure that all safety requirements are met before you use the stove.

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How to buy the right wood stove
When you begin shopping for a wood stove, consider first what you need it to accomplish. Keep these questions in mind:

* How much space must be heated?

* How often will the wood stove be used?

* How much can I afford to spend?

* Will very young children be present when the stove is in operation -- a possible safety hazard? Are there any other significant problems to consider, such as the ability of other family members to operate the stove when needed?

* What safety equipment do you need? How much does that cost?

* Will a wood stove be economical when compared other types of heating systems?

* Should I buy a regular wood stove or pellet stove?


The size of the area to be heated will determine the size of the wood stove you purchase. Remember that a stove that is too small will not heat the area adequately. One that is too large may release too much heat, causing you to reduce the air supply into the stove -- a practice that reduces the stove's efficiency, wastes fuel dollars, and can cause safety and air pollution problems.

With many types of wood stoves and hundreds of models from which to choose, the buying process can be frustrating. One way to simplify the process is to rely on the help of a knowledgeable and reliable wood stove dealer.

Keep these questions in minds when you choose both a dealer and a stove manufacturer:

1. Does the dealer carry lines from several different manufacturers, so I can compare the features?

2. How realistic are any claims made by a dealer about a particular product?

3. Can the dealer help me choose the right size stove and help me place it in the optimum location in my house?

4. Can the dealer deliver and install the product?

5. Can the dealer repair each model sold?

6. Are replaceable parts, service manuals and warranties available?

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Buying and using firewood
When using a fireplace or wood stove for heat, you can, of course, cut and gather your own firewood. That not only requires a healthy amount of time, however, but also requires an initial investment of equipment like axes and saws and splitters. It also demands a working knowledge of cutting wood. You may need to acquire permits from the U.S. Forest Service or State agencies such as the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection.

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You can also purchase firewood
Although there are a variety of measuring units, firewood is normally sold by the cord, or a fraction of a cord. The dimensions of a "standard cord" is a stack of wood piled 8 feet long, 4 feet wide and 4 feet high. You won't get a full 128 cubic feet of firewood with a standard cord because of the airspace between the pieces of the wood; the amount of wood in such a stack will depend upon the size and straightness of the pieces, how they are split and how the wood is stacked. Because of this, the total cubic feet in a cord can vary from 70 to 90 or more cubic feet.

The cost of firewood varies according to the number of services a wood dealer furnishes -- tasks such as splitting, delivering and stacking. The cost also varies in different geographical areas.

Orders for the purchase and delivery of firewood should be placed well in advance of the heating season. Wood purchased during the peak periods is in more demand and becomes more expensive. You will also want to purchase early to give the wood time to season.

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Seasoned wood
Seasoning takes place when the moisture content in wood reaches equilibrium with the moisture in the surrounding air.

When wood is stacked outdoors with good air circulation in a spot that's dry, sunny and open for about six months it will be dry enough to support efficient combustion. Seasoned wood has a higher heating value than green wood. In general, because of its moisture content, a cord of green wood will weigh 70 to 100 percent more than seasoned wood.

The time of year and the size of the wood pieces influences the amount of time that wood takes to season. You can help the process by properly stacking and storing your pile of firewood. The best way is to store it outside, under cover and close to the house for easy access. It should be stacked on a supporting base -- such as cement blocks, pallets or wooden planks. This prevents the wood from drawing moisture from the ground, allows air to circulate around it, reduces insect infestation and cuts down on the amount of dirt in accumulates. End braces or stakes can be used to keep the woodpile from collapsing; they can be built to measure accurately a standard cord.

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The best woods for burning
In either a wood stove or fireplace, the easiest and best fire is built by using a mixture of both softwoods -- from trees such as pines and firs -- and hardwoods -- oak, eucalyptus, cedar and so on.

Softwoods start burning easily, and the hardwoods provide for long burning and good "coaling" qualities. A bed of ashes underneath the grate produces steady heat and aids in igniting new fuel as it is added. The fire will continue burning if small amounts of wood are added at regular intervals. In fact, more efficient combustion results from burning small loads of wood with sufficient air than from burning large loads with minimal air.

Below is the average energy content of various species of wood.

Wood Heating and Weight Values
Species Btu/Cord* Cord Weight
(pounds) **
Cord Weight
(pounds) **
Alder, Red 18.4 - 19.5 2000 - 2600 3200 - 4100
Ash 24.5 - 26.0 2680 - 3450 4630 - 5460
Aspen 17.0 - 18.0 1860 - 2400 3020 - 3880
Beech 28.6 - 30.4 3100 - 4000 4890 - 6290
Birch 25.9 - 27.5 2840 - 3650 4630 - 5960
Cedar, Incense 17.8 - 20.1 1800 - 2350 3020 - 3880
Cedar, Port Orford 20.7 - 23.4 2100 - 2700 3400 - 4370
Cherry 22.3 - 23.7 2450 - 3150 4100 - 5275
Chinquapin 23.2 - 24.7 2580 - 3450 3670 - 4720
Cottonwood 15.8 - 16.8 1730 - 2225 2700 - 3475
Dogwood 28.6 - 30.4 3130 - 4025 5070 - 6520
Douglas-Fir 23.5 - 26.5 2400 - 3075 3930 - 5050
Elm 22.3 - 23.7 2450 - 3150 4070 - 5170
Eucalyptus 32.5 - 34.5 3550 - 4560 6470 - 7320
Fir, Grand 17.8 - 20.1 1800 - 2330 3020 - 3880
Fir, Red 18.3 - 20.6 1860 - 2400 3140 - 4040
Fir, White 18.8 - 21.1 1900 - 2450 3190 - 4100
Hemlock, Western 21.6 - 24.4 2200 - 2830 4460 - 5730
Juniper, Western 23.4 - 26.4 2400 - 3050 4225 - 5410
Laurel, California 24.6 - 26.1 2690 - 3450 4460 - 5730
Locust, Black 29.5 - 31.4 3230 - 4150 6030 - 7750
Madrone 29.1 - 30.9 3180 - 4086 5070 - 6520
Magnolia 22.3 - 23.7 2440 - 3140 4020 - 5170
Maple, Big Leaf 21.4 - 22.7 2350 - 3000 3840 - 4940
Oak, Black 25.8 - 27.4 2821 - 3625 4450 - 5725
Oak, Live 34.4 - 36.6 3766 - 4840 6120 - 7870
Oak, White 26.4 - 28.0 2880 - 3710 4890 - 6290
Pine, Jeffery 19.3 - 21.7 1960 - 2520 3320 - 4270
Pine, Lodgepole 19.7 - 22.3 2000 - 2580 3320 - 4270
Pine, Ponderosa 19.3 - 21.7 1960 - 2520 3370 - 4270
Pine, Sugar 17.3 - 19.6 1960 - 2270 2970 - 3820
Redwood, Coast 17.8 - 20.1 1810 - 2330 3140 - 4040
Spruce, Sitka 19.3 - 21.7 1960 - 2520 3190 - 4100
Sweetgum (Liquidambar) 20.6 - 21.9 2255 - 2900 4545 - 5840
Sycamore 21.9 - 23.3 2390 - 3080 4020 - 5170
Tanoak 25.9 - 27.5 2845 - 3650 4770 - 6070
Walnut, Black 24.5 - 26.0 2680 - 3450 4450 - 5725
Western Red Cedar 15.4 - 17.4 1570 - 2000 2700 - 3475
Willow, Black 17.5 - 18.6 1910 - 2450 3140 - 4040

* British thermal unit (Btu) values based on specific gravity of 80 cubic feet per cord. 8000 to 8500 Btu per pound for non resinous woods. 8600 to 9700 Btu per pound for resinous woods.

** Weights:

Lower value of range assumes 70 cubic feet of wood per cord.

Higher value of range assumes 90 cubic feet of wood per cord.

Dry weight at 12 percent moisture content.

Green weight at 40 to 60 percent moisture content.

All moisture contents based on "wet" wood basis.

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Articles of interest:
Anti-globalization protest grows, with tangible results.  WTO protests page

Tax fossil-fuel energy easily
by Peter Salonius

UK leader calls War on Terror "bogus"

Argentina bleeds toward healing by Raul Riutor

The oil industry has plans for you: blow-back by Jan Lundberg

It's not a war for oil? by Adam Khan

How to create a pedestrian mall by Michelle Wallar

The Cuban bike revolution

How GM destroyed the U.S. rail system excerpts from the film "Taken for a Ride".

"Iraqi oil not enough for US: Last days of America?"

Depaving the world by Richard Register

Roadkill: Driving animals to their graves by Mark Matthew Braunstein

The Hydrogen fuel cell technofix: Spencer Abraham's hydrogen dream.

Ancient Forest Protection in Northern California . Forest defenders climb trees to save them.

Daniel Quinn's thoughts on this website.

A case study in unsustainable development is the ongoing crisis in Palestine and Israel.

Renewable and alternative energy information.

Conserving energy at home (Calif. Title 24)



Culture Change/Sustainable Energy Institute mailing address: P.O. Box 3387 , Santa Cruz , California 95063 USA
  Telephone 1-215-243-3144 (and fax)

Culture Change (Trademarked) is published by Sustainable Energy Institute (formerly Fossil Fuels Policy Action), a nonprofit, 501(c)(3) California non-stock corporation. Contributions are tax-deductible.